|In the past year, there has been a concerted effort to highlight dyslexia as a specific learning disability, with attempts to introduce special provisions in legislation at state and national levels. This has prompted a response from the International Literacy Association questioning whether dyslexia is a special form of reading problem and whether there are characteristics and interventions specific for dyslexia. This presentation will provide a scientific view of dyslexia as a well-understood form of learning disability with specific reading, cognitive, neural, and genetic characteristics. However, the attributes of dyslexia are dimensional, not categorical. Therefore, precise estimates of prevalence are difficult to justify. It is difficult to differentiate children with dyslexia from children with word reading and spelling difficulties who may be lower in intelligence, have comorbid problems with math or ADHD on reading and neural characteristics, and there is little evidence of dyslexia-specific interventions, although explicit instruction in the alphabetic principle as early in schooling as possible is essential for any student with problems acquiring word reading and spelling skills. Like other learning disabilities, dyslexia is real, interferes with adaptation, and has prominent neurobiological correlates. But the neural systems are malleable and many students can overcome dyslexia with early intervention. Intractability to instruction makes dyslexia unexpected, not a cognitive discrepancy.